TROPINET, Vol. 9, No. 4, December 1998

Association for Tropical Biology on the World Wide Web at ATB members may want to check their listings in the Membership Directory posted on the homepage

Keep those cards and e-mails coming!

Tropinet is a joint publication of The Organization for Tropical Studies, the Association of Tropical Biology, and the Smithsonian Institution. The goal is to enhance communication among tropical biologists, who are all over the map, both literally and in terms of scientific discipline.

The success of Tropinet in achieving this goal depends on participation by our readership. Readers provide news, suggest authors for feature items, and in general keep the editorial staff aware and connected to the broader field of tropical biology. Since the inaugural issue was published in 1990, readers and/or members of the sponsoring organizations have provided many news items for publication. However, contributions have declined markedly in the last few years.

Please consider contributing news or information for the next issue of Tropinet. Contributions from Asia, Australia, and Africa are particularly encouraged. Tropinet is published quarterly; deadlines are contributions are the 15th of each February, May, August, and November. –E. Braker


International Symposium on the Biogeography of Madagascar; Diversity and Endemism in Madagascar-Endemic Centers and Priorities to Conservation. Paris, France, 31 August-2 September 1999. Information: Dr. Wilson R. Lourenco, Laboratoire de Zoologie, Museum National D’Histoire Naturelle 61, rue de Buffon, 75005. Paris, France. Email:

Research Opportunities for Undergraduates: Tropical Lake Studies. 5 July-13 August 1999. The Nyanza Project is a summer research training program for undergraduates, sponsored by the International Decade of East African Lakes (IDEAL) and funded by the National Science Foundation and the Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project. This six-week program is open to sophomore to senior level undergraduates of any nationality attending a U.S. college or university, or to students from the countries surrounding Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania, Burundi, Zambia, and Zaire). Applicants should be interested in continuing research careers in any aspect of aquatic sciences (limnology, ecology, evolutionary biology, conservation biology, geolimnology, and paleolimnology). Students who are members of under-represented groups are particularly encouraged to apply. The program will take place at Kigoma, Tanzania to take advantage of world-class research opportunities at Lake Tanganyika. Students who are accepted into the program will have their airfare, room and board, and research expenses paid by the project and will be given a stipend. Applications will be accepted until 15 December 1998. Information: The Nyanza Project, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 85721. Tel: (520) 626-7312. Fax: (520) 621-2672. Email: WWW:


Correction: In the June edition of Tropinet (vol. 9, no. 2) there was a misprint. William Sunderlin provided the analysis of the potential effects of the 1998 economic crisis on Indonesian forests. This analysis is available on CIFOR’s website:

1999 UBD Research Fellowship. Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD) offers a number of one-year post-doctoral research fellowships within the Faculty of Science for research in Brunei Darussalam. Ecologically oriented research topics are especially encouraged and preference may be given to projects that complement work already in progress. Current research interests within the Biology Department of UBD include the marine and coastal ecosystems, mangroves, peatswamps, heath and mixed dipterocarp rainforests. Information on current research, facilities and terms and conditions: Colin Maycock, Fax: (673) 2-249502. Email:


*The Caribbean Journal of Science. Individuals are invited to submit manuscripts related to the Caribbean-southern Florida, Bahamas, Yucatan, Venezuela, and the Caribbean Islands. The Caribbean Journal of Science offers international peer review, careful editorial review, efficient processing of manuscripts, papers in press listed in our web site, simultaneous publication in print and on the Internet, international distribution and global availability on the web, traditional and electronic reprints, article delivery service, typesetting from electronic copy, quality printing and excellent presentation, timely publication and low page charges.
Information: WWW: Email:

Implementing the Kyoto Protocol. From 2-14 November, world leaders met in Buenos Aires, Argentina for the Fourth Conference of the Parties to the International Climate Change Treaty. The goal was to adopt a work schedule and specific operating rules to achieve the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions specified under the Kyoto Protocol.

Under the protocol, adopted in December 1997, industrialized nations have agreed to cut emissions of greenhouse gases an average of 5 percent below 1990 levels beginning in 2008. Just last week, the United States became the 60th and last industrial nation to sign the treaty. Additionally, while developing nations are not required to participate in the early phases of the protocol, both Argentina and Kazakhstan have now committed to taking steps toward voluntary emissions reductions.

The two-week negotiations resulted in an action plan that was approved by 160 countries. The plan established a year 2000 deadline for the development of specific strategies to implement the Kyoto Protocol, including provisions for the international trading of emissions credits, mechanisms to monitor compliance, and the creation of a Clean Development Mechanism that will enable wealthier nations to fund emissions-reduction projects in developing nations. Information: WWW:


James F. Lynch Conservation Biology Fund. James F. Lynch, Smithsonian Research Scientist, died of cancer on 26 March 1998. During his 24 years with the Smithsonian Institution, he conducted research in ecology, systematics, island biogeography, habitat reduction and fragmentation, and animal-plant interactions. His conservation research in Central America and Mexico spanned over 30 years, and over the course of his career he conducted research over an enormous range of the world, including North, Central, and South America, Australia, and East Africa. Lynch produced over 60 scientific publications and was actively involved in professional societies, advisory committees, and non-profit organizations.

In an attempt to support new scientists working in Conservation Biology, a fund has been set up in Lynch’s honor through the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. The James F. Lynch Conservation Biology Fund will assist students and researchers working in Central America and East Africa. The current goal is to build this fund into an endowment that will continue to help scientists interested in Conservation Biology for years to come. Contributions and inquiries may be made to the James F. Lynch Conservation Biology Fund, c/o Jeanine Robert, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, PO Box 28, Edgewater, MD 21037. The first award from this fund will be made in 1999.

Field Station Profile:
The Guandera Reserve and Biological Station, Ecuador

The Guandera Reserve and Biological Station is a center for field research, education, and ecotourism in the high Andes of northern Ecuador. Encompassing over 1000 ha of high altitude cloud forest and alpine parámo, the reserve possesses a wide and unique diversity of plant and animal life. The Biological station is set in the midst of the spectacularly rare Guandera forest, part of the only remaining expanse of ancient high altitude forest that once covered the Ecuadorian Andes.

Plant diversity within the reserve is high, especially given the altitude of the forest. A preliminary inventory of flora in the reserve includes 250 herbaceous plants and more than 60 trees. Orchids and Melastomataceae are especially diverse in species and life form.
Above the forest, an abrupt transition leads to yet another unusual and spectacular ecosystem: the expansive and open alpine parámo with its gardens of soft-leafed "Frailejón" plants. The distinctive straw-like grasses are dotted with a colorful diversity of endemic flowering meadow plants, and the spiny "Achupalla", favorite food of the Andean Spectacled Bear. Clear days afford stunning views of the snow-capped volcanoes that rise across the Andean Central Valley. These are some of the last unpopulated and unexploited parámos in Ecuador and they extend for many kilometers, inviting the visitor to trek above and beyond 4000 meters (13,000 feet).

Over 150 species of resident and migrant birds are found in the reserve and surrounding agricultural lands. Among the 100 plus Andean endemics are 30 rare or endangered species, including the very recently discovered Chestnut-bellied Cotinga. Over 20 species of hummingbirds and 15 species of tangagers are found in the reserve. Wildlife species such as the endangered Andean Spectacled Bear, deer, mountain foxes, and puma are frequently encountered. Although thus far uncatalogued, insect diversity also appears quite high.

The primary mission of Guandera is conservation of some of the last remaining inter-Andean cloud forest. Towards this goal, native species are being propagated in a greenhouse and tree nursery, and an active scientific research program is in place to describe the unusual high altitude diversity of flora and fauna. Educational programs include an interpretive botanical garden around the station to introduce visitors to some of the important plants found in the reserve; collaboration with the local community of Mariscal Sucre in a hands-on environmental education course with local high school students; and an agro-forestry program that promotes organic fruit and vegetable growing with the agricultural cooperative. Volunteer interns, who spend one month or more at Guandera, work in all of the above programs.

The biological station can sleep up to 20 visitors in four dormitory-style rooms. The house features a full kitchen and indoor bathrooms with hot-water showers, but no phone or electricity. Staff includes the reserve administrator, one park guard/guide, two cook/housekeepers, and auxiliary personnel who work in the tree nursery, botanical gardens, community extension, and educational outreach. Additionally, two to eight volunteer interns are normally on site.

Although Guandera is somewhat remote, access is fairly easy. The station is located four hours north of Quito on the paved Pan-American Highway, another hour drive off the highway on a cobblestone road, followed by a half-hour walk into the reserve. Day visitors are welcome and the reserve entrance is free. Groups of more than 8 persons should contact the Jatun Sacha office in Quito or José Cando Rosero in Mariscal Sucre at least one week in advance of their visit. With advance planning, an educational program is available for school groups. Overnight visitor fees to stay at the guesthouse include three meals and a shared room. Visitors: $25.00 per night. Volunteers: $300.00 per month. For more information: Email: or Fundación Jatun Sacha, Casilla 17-12-867, Quito-Ecuador Avenida Río Coca 1734. Tel: 441592/250976. Fax: 441592

Meetings and Events
Items marked (*) are new this issue

*North American Benthological Society 47th Annual Meeting. Duluth, Minnesota. 25-28 May. Program includes four full days of contributed sessions, technical workshops, special sessions, a poster session, and social events. Plenary session theme is "Current Issues in Aquatic Sciences: Examples from the Great Lakes". Pre- and post-meeting field trips planned include canoeing and camping the BWCAW, exploring and sampling the Lake Superior North Shore streams and water falls, camping and kayaking the Apostle Islands National Park, camping and hiking the Isle Royale National Park, and canoeing or fly-fishing area rivers. Deadline for abstracts is 5 January and electronic submission is encouraged. Information: Carl Richards. Tel: (218) 720-4332. Anne Hershey. Tel: (336) 334-5839. WWW:

*Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology. University of Maryland, College Park, MD. 17-21 June. Information: David Inouye, Tel: (301) 405-6946. Email: WWW:

*Animal Behavior Society Annual Meeting. Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. 26 June-1 July. Symposia include "Educating about Animal Behavior: A Broader Perspective". Plenary speakers include Gail Michener, Lynne Houck, and Steve Nowicki. Information: Michael Pereira. Tel: (717) 524-1430. Email: WWW:

Tropical Restoration for the New Millennium. San Juan, Puerto Rico, 23-28 May. Co-sponsored by the Society of Ecological Restoration (SER), the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), and the University of Puerto Rico. Held jointly with the 4th Annual Puerto Rico Forestry Conference. Information: J. Parrotta, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 25000, Río Piedras, PR. 00928-5000, USA. Email:


Tropical Dendrology Course in Costa Rica. 8-20 March 1999 (Spanish) and 21 June-3 July (English). Learn to identify tropical plants while traveling through Costa Rica. Courses are offered in both Spanish and English. Fellowships for Latin American students are available. Information: Dr. Humberto Jiménez Saa., Tropical Science Center, Apdo. 8-3870-1000, San José, Costa Rica. Fax: (506) 253-4963. Email: WWW:

Ecosistemas Amazónicos. This intensive Spanish language field course will be offered for the first time in May 1999 by the Organization of Tropical Studies in collaboration with the Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research. Ecosistemas Amazónicos will focus on the unique characteristics of the flooded and upland forests of the western Amazon region near Iquitos, Peru. This course is primarily intended to serve Latin American graduate students, although Spanish speaking graduate students may apply regardless of nationality. Coordinators will be Drs. Bette Loiselle and Alejandro Farji. Dates: 10 May-7 June. Information: Dr. Nora Bynum, Box 90630, Durham, NC. 27708-0630. Tel: (919) 684-5774; Fax: (919) 684-5661; Email:

The Birds of Costa Rica: Tropical Bird Ecology for Birding Enthusiasts. 13-26 April 1999, 24 August-6 December 1999. Cost: $1900. Information: The Monteverde Institute, Email:

Brazilian Ecosystems. Opportunities to study ecology, culture, and environmental issues in Brazil. Fall Term: September-December 1999. Application Deadline: 15 March 1999. Open to graduate students and undergraduates who have completed two years of academic study. Preparation in basic earth sciences or environmental studies is required. Previous study of Portuguese or Spanish is recommended. Information: Antioch Education Abroad, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, 45387. Tel: (937) 767-6366. Toll free: (800) 874-7986. Email: WWW:

Rainforest and Marine Biology Workshops: Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Southeast Alaska. June-July 1999. Workshops are field-oriented and focus on natural history, rainforest and marine ecology, conservation, land management, medicinal uses of native plants, local cultures, archaeology and geology. Instruction features local biologists and naturalist guides. Proceeds go to the sponsoring organization in each country and help support valuable education/conservation projects. Three undergraduate or graduate credits in the Natural Sciences or Education are available for attending through Aquinas College of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Workshops are sponsored by the Rainforest and Reef Conservation Fund, and last 12 to 14 days. Information: Rainforest and Reef Conservation Fund 501 (c) (3) non-profit, Prospect NE Suite #8, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. Tel: (616) 776-5928. Fax: (616) 776-5931. Email:

Tropical Ecology and Conservation Semester Abroad for Undergraduates. The University of Costa Rica announces the semester abroad World Class Program directed to undergraduate students with a strong interest in. The program comprises four courses with 16 credit hours transferable to American Universities through the University of Costa Rica Office of International Affairs and External Cooperation. For a period of three months, students take courses on Tropical Ecology, Natural History of Costa Rica, Biodiversity and Conservation and Spanish for Non-Native Speakers. All classes are taught in English and offered at the Campus Rodrigo Facio in San José. Students live with a Costa Rican family who provide room and board. A strong emphasis is given to fieldwork (more than a month is spent in the field). The course visits more than seven Biological Stations and National Parks each semester. Field trips are led by experienced professors with Ph.D. degrees. Three sessions are offered for the Fall, Spring and Summer Semesters. The next session starts in February 1999. For more information please contact the Program Academic Coordinator at the University of Costa Rica, Gerardo Avalos or the North American Office (Jesse Fox,,

Volunteer Opportunities

Foundation Jatun Sacha Volunteer Program. The Jatun Sacha Foundation offers opportunities for volunteer interns to participate in research education, community service, station maintenance, plant conservation, and agroforestry activities carried out by the Jatun Sacha, Bilsa, and Guandera biological stations. The Jatun Sacha Biological Station is a 2,000 hectare reserve located in the tropical rainforest region of the upper Napo of Amazonian Ecuador. Bilsa is a 3,000 hectare reserve containing some of the last premontane tropical wet forest of the northwestern coastal province of Esmeraldas. The newest reserve, Guandera, at altitudes of 3,100-3,600 meters conserves more than 400 hectares of tropical wet montane forest in the northern Andes of the Carchi province. Information: Volunteer Program, Fundación Jatun Sacha, Castilla, 17-12-867, Avenida Río Coca 1734, Quito, Ecuador. Tel: (02) 441-592.250-976.253-267. Fax: (02) 441-592. Email: WWW:


Research Training Fellowships in Wildlife Conservation in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The Governors of the Wellcome Trust are pleased to invite applications for Research Training Fellowships. The awards offer research training opportunities to young wildlife conservation workers from developing countries who wish to carry out research relevant to the management of globally significant biodiversity resources in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, or Latin America. The Fellowships are designed to provide candidates with rigorous academic research training, combined with experience in applying this training to on-the-ground conservation and management challenges. Application deadline: January 22, 1999. Information: The Wellcome Trust, 183 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BE, U.K., Tel: (0171) 611-8888. Fax: (0171) 611-8845. WWW:

Bullard Fellowships in Forest Research, Harvard University. The Bullard Fellowships promote advanced study, research, or integration of subjects pertaining to forest ecosystems. The fellowships, which include stipends of up to $30,000, are intended to provide individuals in mid-career with an opportunity to utilize the resources and to interact with personnel in any department within Harvard University in order to develop their own scientific and professional growth. Fellowships are available for periods ranging from four months to one year and can begin at any time in the year. Applications from international scientists, women, and minorities are encouraged. Fellowships are not intended for graduate students or recent post-doctoral candidates. Annual deadline for applications is 1 February. Information: Committee on the Charles Bullard Fund for Forest Research, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, P.O. Box 68, Petersham MA 03166 USA.


Program Director, Antioch Education Abroad, Brazilian Ecosystems: The Protection and Management of Diversity. Antioch Education Abroad is accepting applications for the position of Program Director for the Fall 1999 Brazilian Ecosystems study abroad program. This fourteen-week program integrates intensive studies in field ecology, local and regional conservation and management initiatives, and studies in Portuguese language. College students travel to seven distinct ecosystems, and learn from Brazilian faculty, researchers, graduate students and other conservationists. The program includes a four-week independent internship module. As many as 20 undergraduate students from colleges and universities across the United States and Canada participate in this program each year.

Responsibilities include: 1) Availability from 1 July 1999. Program leaves for Brazil in August 1999, 2) Teach core course: Brazilian Ecosystems (8 credit hours), 3) Work closely with Brazilian coordinator in Curitiba to prepare and implement schedule, travel, accommodations, and site visit logistics. Also select and make arrangements for lecturers and speakers, 4) Coordinate with Brazilian faculty who organize internships, 5) Consult with Portuguese instructor in the evaluation of language credits for each student, 6) Participate in the selection of students and Program Assistant for the program, 7) Work closely with AEA in the recruitment of students and planning of program budget, 8) Manage on-site budget, 9) Act as cultural liaison for the students in Brazil. Qualifications: Ph.D. in biological sciences or related field, or equivalent experience and education; previous teaching and field study leadership experience required; Portuguese language ability highly desirable; international experience, particularly in Brazil; maturity, flexibility, and a sense of humor; previous experience in group leadership highly desirable. Remuneration will consist of round-trip transportation to Brazil, a salary based on a six-month appointment, and per diem for the cost of living in Brazil for duration of program.

To apply, submit: curriculum vitae, two references, and cover letter detailing relevant academic and experiential background, qualifications to advise and teach in an intercultural setting, and reasons for wanting to lead this program. Review of candidates will begin 15 January 1999, and will continue until the position is filled. Please send all application materials directly to Dr. Hassan Nejad, Dean of Faculty, Antioch College, 795 Livermore St., Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387-1697.

Deputy Director: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara. Consideration of applications began in November of 1998 and will continue until the position is filled. The applicant will work both independently and collaboratively with resident and visiting scientists and the Center staff. The Deputy Director will coordinate science-related activities at the center and oversee graduate student interns. The successful applicant will be a primary contact person regarding scientific matters with resident and visiting scientists at the Center. He/she will assist the Director with short- and long-range planning relative to the goals and activities of the Center, oversee implementation of Center scientific policies and procedures, and coordinate logistical issues with the Office Manager and Director of Computing. The successful candidate should have a background in ecology or a related field (Ph.D. preferred, M.Sc. acceptable). Applicant should be an experienced researcher (the position includes an opportunity for personal research) with a familiarity of conservation issues (preferably in the State of California). Information: Dr. O.J. Reichman, Director. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, 735 State Street, Suite 300, Santa Barbara, CA. 93101-3351. Email: WWW:

Book Review

Two New Floras Catalogue Neotropical Botanical Diversity

Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Perú. R. Vásquez Martínez. Edited by Agustín Rudas Lleras and Charlotte M. Taylor. Monographs in Systematic Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 63, 1997; $85 (Spanish).

Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Alwyn H. Gentry who collected extensively and studied the flora of Peru, this huge volume (1046 pp.) treats ca. 2900 species of pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms that occur in three reserves (Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp, Explorama Lodge) in the vicinity of Iquitos, Peru. The reserves are located in a floristically rich region for which identification guides have been essentially lacking. It is thus a welcome addition to the botanist’s and field biologist’s bookshelf although the price will be daunting for many.

The fourteen-page introduction provides maps and information for each reserve on abiotic (geology, climate, topography, soils, hydrology) and biotic characteristics (habitats and forest types, plant habits, major collections, floristic composition). Tables list families, provide counts of genera and species, identify the top ten families, and compare these reserves floristically to the rest of Peru. Distribution and endemism patterns are discussed. The glossary, bibliography, list of common names and index of scientific names, all located at the end of the book, will be extremely valuable to many users.

The main body of the florula is the floristic treatments, including keys to families (pteridophytes and angiosperms), genera and species. Families follow Cronquist, but are arranged alphabetically except that angiosperms are separated as dicots and monocots. Genera and species are not numbered in the keys or in the text. This makes large keys cumbersome to use given that the process of keying often requires moving repeatedly between keys and species descriptions to cross-check information. Habitat, occurrence in the three reserves, and local names and uses when known, are included at the end of species descriptions. Curiously lacking from the family and generic treatments is information regarding size (i.e., number of genera and species, respectively). This makes it difficult to gage the degree to which a given treatment will be generally useful in areas of the Amazon (and Neotropics) outside of these reserves. This omission is mentioned in the introduction to the keys, but without explanation. Some keys incorporate vegetative characters, but most assume the availability of flowering material. This will definitely limit the usefulness of the keys, as most plants are sterile when encountered. Specimens are not cited but an effort was made to illustrate at least one genus from each. However, the illustrations are at the end of the book, making it difficult and even cumbersome, given the book’s weight, to compare text descriptions with drawings. Further, the quality and detail of the illustrations vary considerably.

This volume addresses the need for a comprehensive florula for parts of the Amazon region and the author is to be commended for his monumental efforts. This is not, however, a field guide: at 7 cm thick and weighing in at 2.5 kilos, the florula is about twice as massive as a typical volume of an encyclopedia! Still, tropical biologists of all stripes will welcome it to their bookshelves. --Jennifer Hedin, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63166 (<>) and Lucinda A. McDade, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (<>).

Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Volume 4 Caesalpiniaceae - Ericaceae. J. A. Steyermark, P.E. Berry, and B.K. Holst (general editors), P. E. Berry, B.K. Holst, and K. Yatskievych (volume editors), illustrations by B. Manara, family and genus treatments by 54 contributors. 799 pp. $67.95, hb. ISBN 091 527 9525. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 4344 Shaw Blvd, St. Louis MO 63110, Tel: 314-577-9534, Fax: 314-577-9591, Email:

This is the fourth in an anticipated total of nine volumes treating the estimated 10,000 species of southern Venezuela. These volumes are welcome additions to our still sparse bookshelf of South American floras and the editors are to be commended for bringing this massive project to fruition in a quite reasonable period of time. (Something about price; something about size) Those who cannot afford the entire series will certainly want to acquire volume 1 in addition to those that treat families of particular interest. Volume 1 provides a great deal of information on the area, vegetation and topography, numerical summaries of the flora, etc. Especially importantly, a very useful family key is provided.

The editors are also to be commended for including line drawings; these are of high quality and extremely useful. I would have argued for inclusion of scale bars (or some other way to judge approximate dimensions) and of some indication of salient characters (e.g., arrows).

Family and genus treatments are complete in the sense that they are worldwide in scope; this will add to the general utility of the flora although it would have perhaps been useful to add restrictive language (e.g., in our species). Species descriptions are not extremely detailed but are quite adequate for purposes of a flora. Specimens are not cited although part of the project involves compiling a specimen list, to be available in a number of formats.

Family treatments follow Cronquist (1981) and are presented in alphabetical order, with non-flowering seed plants, monocots and dicots part of the same alphabetic series. A flora must be ordered in some way and this format is no more artificial than many. I would point out, however, that Cronquist's remarkable volume is both very expensive (and thus not owned by many) and now quite dated in terms of our growing understanding of plant relationships. The dual choice of Cronquist and alphabetical order does result in some surprises. For example, I had forgotten that Cronquist treats Cuscutaceae separately from Convolvulaceae. Finding no Cuscuta under the latter family, I concluded that there were none only to find Cuscutaceae, with three species, listed four families later in the alphabetic series. I would encourage family authors to help users to avoid such misunderstandings by pointing us to segregate families that will appear elsewhere in the volume. For example, one could easily key Cuscuta under both Convolvulaceae and Cuscutaceae, and at the former location indicate that species are treated in the latter.

Another, probably inevitable, consequence of presenting the flora expeditiously and in alphabetical order by family is that some treatments are more authoritative than others. A number, for example, include species that are not yet described. These are treated as A, B, etc. One hopes that when these plants are formally described, they will be clearly cross-referenced to this flora.

The family and genus treatments were contributed by specialists with the positive result that each treatment reflects an expert's knowledge. This also results in some unevenness: for example, the key couplets for Capparaceae provide nearly exhaustive lists of differentiating characters whereas most of the keys provide only a couple of characters to differentiate the plants.

One additional minor quibble is that I would have preferred that the species be numbered both in the keys and in the treatments. For genera with many species, this would facilitate moving from key to text and vice-versa which, let's face it, is the way that most of us work when identifying plants.

Like most floras, this one emphasizes reproductive characters and is thus geared toward botanists working with complete material. In contrast, field biologists must often struggle to identify plants without benefit of either flowers or fruits, and certainly without both. I would urge authors of future family treatments to keep the field biologist in mind and to add such field characters as habit, distinctive vegetative characters, and habitat to their keys whenever possible. Other volumes in this series: Vol. 1, 1995, General Introduction. Co-published with Timber Press. ISBN: 088 192 3133, 319 pp. Plus 2 maps. 52.95. Vol. 2, 1995, Ferns, co-published with Timber Press. ISBN 088 192 3265, 706 pp. 67.95. Vol. 3, 1997, Araliaceae to Cactaceae, ISBN 0915 279 460, 792 pp, 67.95. Vol. 5 due in 1999. --Lucinda A. McDade, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721,


Measures of Success: Designing, Managing, and Monitoring Conservation and Development Projects. R. Margoluis and N. Salafsky. 1998. Island Press. Measures of Success is a practical, hands-on guide to designing, managing, and measuring the impacts of community-oriented conservation and development projects. It presents a clear, logical, and yet comprehensive approach to developing and implementing effective programs, and can help conservation and development practitioners use principles of adaptive management to test assumptions about their projects and learn from the results. 363pp. $35.00. ISBN: 1-55963-612-2. Information and orders: Island Press, Tel: (800) 828-1302.

Parks in Peril. Edited by Katrina Brandon, Kent H. Redford, and Steven S. Sanderson. 1998, Island Press. In light of the increasing problems in Latin America, the region’s challenge is to align economic growth with social equity, sustainably manage biologically diverse areas and control urban environmental problems. This book examines the pros and cons of rigidly protecting natural resources within national parks. Hb: ISBN 1-55963-607-6, $50.00, pb: 1-55963-608-4, $30.00. Orders: Island Press, BOX 7, Dept 2NET, Covelo, CA 95428. Tel: 1-800-828-1302, outside US 707- 983-6432, fax: 707- 983-6414,