TROPINET, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1996
Association for Tropical Biology on the World Wide
Web. The ATB homepage is up and running, thanks to Steve
Mulkey at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. It can be found at
ATB members may want to check their listings in the Membership
Directory posted on the homepage.
Impending Pollination Crisis Threatens Biodiversity and Agriculture,
by Mrill Ingram, Gary Paul Nabhan and Stephen Buchmann, The
Forgotten Pollinators Campaign, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 2021 N.
Kinney Rd. Tucson, AZ 85743.
For one out of every three bites you take, thank a bee, butterfly,
bat, bird, or other pollinator. Animals provide pollination services
for over three-quarters of the staple crop plants that feed
humankind, and for 90% of all flowering plants in the world.
We are facing an "impending pollination crisis," in which both wild
and managed pollinators are disappearing at alarming rates due to
habitat loss, pesticide poisoning, diseases and pests (USDA-ARS
1991). Pollinator declines may destabilize food production and
ecosystem functions globally. This concern has led to the formation
of an international working group on pollination to advise the
Sustainable Rural Environment and Energy Network of the United
Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. Pollination is a basic
service upon which we all depend, one provided by healthy ecosystems
that provide pollinators with habitats for foraging, nesting,
roosting, and mating. Pollination is critical to successful
commercial orchard and field crop production, endangered species
protection, urban gardening, ecological restoration, and forage
production. As food producers and consumers, scientists and
educators, beekeepers and wildlife enthusiasts, we are concerned that
a basic fact of life--our dependence upon the functional relationship
between plants and pollinators--is being ignored.
Pollinators in agriculture. About 1 billion people--one fifth
of the world's human population--are now undernourished because of
chronic instabilities in food production and distribution. Recent
surveys document that more than 30 genera of animals -- consisting of
hundreds of species of floral visitors -- are required to pollinate
the 100 or so crops that feed the world (Prescott-Allen and
Prescott-Allen 1990, Buchmann and Nabhan 1996a). Only 15% of these
crops are serviced by domestic honey bees, while at least 80% are
pollinated by wild bees and other wildlife.
Honey bees, economically the most important pollinators of crops
worldwide, are in decline. The number of commercial U.S. bee colonies
plummeted from 5.9 million colonies in the late 1940s, to 4.3 million
in 1985, and to 2.7 million in 1995 (USDA-ARS 1991). The loss of one
quarter of all managed honey bee colonies since 1990 signals one of
the most severe declines in any agricultural input that U.S.
agriculture has ever experienced. This demise has been brought on by
the spread of diseases and parasitic mites, the invasion of
Africanized honeybees, poisoning by pesticide exposure, climatic
fluctuations, and the abandonment of government subsidies for
beekeepers (USDA-ARS 1991). This unfortunate trend continues, despite
the economic value of honeybees to agriculture (Southwick and
Alternative pollinators often play important economic roles. The
ground-nesting alkali bee, for example, is native to North America,
and is a more effective pollinator of alfalfa than is the honey bee
(O'Toole 1993). In the southeastern U.S., highbush blueberry farmers
depend on wild bees for pollination services. A diversity of wild
pollinators are important in tropical agricultural crops (Roubik
1995). Complete inventories of the effective pollinators of
cultivated crops and other valuable plants are urgently needed. We
also need inventories of nectar resources and host plants that
sustain wild pollinators. Entomologists need to research how
populations of native insects can be managed for pollinating crops
and considered as genetic resources essential for sustaining
agricultural yields. It is imperative that we conserve the wild
pollinators that can, if properly managed, stabilize and even enhance
Pollinators and biodiversity. Our recent analyses of global
inventories of biodiversity indicate that more than 100,000 different
animal species -- and perhaps as many as 200,000 -- play roles in
pollinating the 250,000 kinds of wild flowering plants on this
planet. In addition to countless bees, wasps, moths, butterflies,
flies, beetles, and other invertebrates, perhaps 1500 species of
vertebrates serve as pollinators. Hummingbirds are the best known
vertebrate pollinators in the Americas, but perching birds, flying
foxes, fruit bats, possums, lemurs, rodents, and even a gecko
function as effective pollinators elsewhere in the world.
The ultimate reproductive consequences of pollinator scarcity on wild
plants is not appreciated and remains understudied (Burd 1994, Nabhan
and Fleming 1993). The few existing studies indicate that many
species of wild plants may be suffering decreased reproductive
success as a result of low visitation rates by pollinators. The last
remaining natural populations of a rare evening primrose live in
California's Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge. Though the
primrose is protected, its hawkmoth pollinator has not reappeared
after years of pesticide spraying in nearby vineyards, and primrose
reproduction has remained low (Pavlik et al. 1993). In Iowa, where
only 200 acres of unplowed prairie remain intact, low seed yields in
prairie wildflowers has been linked to lack of adequate visitation
rates by pollinators (Hendrix 1994). Rare cacti in U.S. national
parks and adjacent to heavily sprayed cotton fields showed high
levels of floral abortion due to paucity of pollinating moths (Suzan,
Nabhan, and Patten 1994). In urban Tokyo, a primrose almost
completely failed to set seed due to local disturbance of its
bumblebee pollinator (Washitani et al. 1994). In a 17-year study in
French Guiana, a shift in native pollinator populations to a fauna
dominated by Africanized bees caused a 40% drop in seed set of
tropical legumes (Roubik 1996).
Unfortunately, regular assessment of status of pollinators is not
usually part of management plans for threatened species. In the U.S.,
even the pollinators of plants on the federal endangered species
plants are not regularly monitored. Our survey of federal recovery
plans for 16 endangered plants growing near the U.S./Mexico border
revealed that the range of available pollinators had been determined
for only two of them, but the population status of the pollinators
themselves had not been analyzed for any species. The assessment of
pollinator status needs to be elevated to a priority for agencies and
organizations managing lands where endangered plants occur. Data
bases on endangered plant species need to routinely include fields
for pollinators to elicit and accommodate new information.
Threats to wild pollinators. Globally, over 180 species of
birds and mammals in 100 genera of vertebrate pollinators are already
listed as endangered, and untold invertebrates are at risk as well
(Nabhan 1996). Because some wild pollinators need undisturbed habitat
for nesting, roosting and foraging, they are very susceptible to
habitat degradation and fragmentation (Nabhan and Buchmann 1996a). In
Costa Rica wild bee diversity in degraded forest land dropped from 70
to 37 species in 14 years (Buchmann & Nabhan 1996). While the
exact mechanism responsible for population declines is uncertain, one
strong possibility is that habitat fragments do not provide the
diversity of resources needed by pollinators. For example, they may
require plants that flower sequentially, providing food sources
throughout the season, or may require alternative nectar and pollen
sources. Lepidopteran pollinators require host plants for their
larvae, and bees require nesting resources. Elimination of these
resources can lead to declines in pollinator populations (Buchmann
and Nabhan 1996).
Another threat to wild pollinators is exposure to pesticides and
other toxins than can poison them or impair their reproduction. For
example, aerial spraying for coniferous forest pests in Canada in the
mid-1970's reduced populations of native bees to the extent that
blueberry yields were reduced for a period of four years (Kevan and
Plowright 1995). Field studies in the deserts of the southwest U.S.
have found that pollinators remaining in small fragments of natural
habitat are particularly susceptible to pesticide spraying on
adjacent croplands (Suzan, Nabhan and Patten 1994; Goodstein 1996).
Herbicides can eliminate nectar sources for pollinators, larval host
plants for moths and butterflies, and deplete nesting materials for
bees (Nabhan and Buchmann 1996b).
Certain pollinators, such as bats, hummingbirds, moths and
butterflies migrate seasonally over long and short distances between
mountain ranges, regions, or countries. Their migratory routes are
often well-defined nectar corridors where the sequence of flowering
over a season offers the pollinators sufficient energy to sustain
their journey. Many of these nectar corridors are no longer fully
intact, however; land conversion has eliminated some floral resources
over 20 to 60 mile segments, in some cases longer than what
energy-depleted pollinators can fly in one day (Nabhan and Fleming
Pollinators as ecosystem links. Pollination is a threatened
ecological service. The interactions between plants and their
pollinators are essential to viable structure and healthy functioning
of wild and agricultural communities. Habitat loss, disease, and
pesticides take their toll in different ways, but all of them imperil
these vital ecological relationships, many of which are products of
thousands of years of natural and cultural selection. In an era when
human activities place increasing pressure on both natural and rural
landscapes, we cannot ignore the vital role of pollination services
and the frequently negative impacts that we are having on
plant/pollinator relationships. As a society, we need to recognize
our debt to the "forgotten pollinators".
Buchmann, S. L. and G. P. Nabhan. 1996. The Forgotten
Pollinators. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Burd, M. 1994. Botanical Review 60:81-109. Goodstein, C. 1996. Amicus
Journal, Spring: 26-30.
Hendrix, S. D. 1994. North American Prairie Conference Proceedings
Kevan, P. G. 1975. Environmental Conservation, 2(4): 293-298.
Nabhan, G. 1996 (ed.) The Pollinator Redbook of Threatened Vertebrate
Species. in press, Forgotten Pollinators Campaign, Arizona-Sonora
Desert Museum, Tucson AZ.
Nabhan, G. P. and S. L. Buchmann. 1996 (in press). Pollination
services: biodiversity's direct link to world food stability. In
Ecosystem Services, G. Daly, ed. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Nabhan, G. P. and S. L. Buchmann. 1996b (in press). Comments in
Nabhan, G. P. and T. Fleming. 1993. Conservation Biology 7(3):
O'Toole, C. 1993. Diversity of Native Bees and Agroecosystems. In
Hymenoptera and Biodiversity. CAB International, Wallingford,
Pavlik, B. M., N. Ferguson, and M. Nelson. 1993. Biological
Conservation, 65: 267-278.
Prescott-Allen, R. and C. Prescott-Allen. 1990. Conservation Biology,
Roubik, D. R. 1995. Agricultural Services Bulletin 118, FAO, Rome
Southwick, E. E. and L.
Southwick, Jr. 1992. Economic Entomology. 85(3): 621-633.
Suzan, H., G. P. Nabhan, and D. T. Patten. 1994. Conservation
Biology, 8:461-470. USDA-ARS. 1991.
Pollination Workshop Proceedings. Unpublished, Denver, CO.
Washitani, I. R. Osawa, H. Namai, and M. Niwa. 1994. Journal of
Forests at the Limit: Environmental Constraints on Forest
Function. Forestry in South Africa is based on savanna woodland,
native closed canopy forest, and commercial plantations. Forestry
currently plays a critical role in the accelerated development of
rural South Africa by providing affordable energy and building
materials to rural households, by contributing to sustainable
agriculture, and by providing raw materials to a wide range of small
businesses. Forest researchers in South Africa face huge new
challenges, and an improved understanding of tree physiology and
canopy processes is required to maximize sustainable productivity and
to minimize environmental impacts of plantations. A workshop on this
topic will be held by the International Union of Forest Research
Organizations (IUFRO), 11-17 May, 1997, at Skukuza, Kruger National
Park. The workshop will include presentations on forest water use;
carbon, nutrient-plant-water interactions; tropical forests,
woodlands and savannas; and forest responses to stress. Information:
Vanessa Daniel, IUFRO Workshop Secretariat, PO Box 95823, Waterkloof
0145, South Africa. Tel: 2112346 1517. FAX: 27 12467909. Email:
Newsletter on Invertebrate Studies . Cocuyo is a
newsletter about the activities of scientists who study the
invertebrates of Cuba. It is produced by editors Julio Genaro and
Jorge L. Fontenla of the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN) in
Havana and published and mailed with support from the RARE Center for
Tropical Conservation in Philadelphia. The editors are interested in
contributions from those who study Cuban invertebrate fauna. The
newsletter is also available for exchange from the MNHN. To
contribute, to participate in an exchange, or for more information:
Julio A. Genaro, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Obispo #61,
Esquina a Oficios, Habana Vieja 10100 Cuba. FAX: 537 62-0353.
III Brazilian Ecological Congress. The Congress will be held
6-11 October 1996 in Brasilia. Information is available at the
University of Brasilia's World Wide Web site: http://www.unb.br.
The 1996 meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology will be
held in conjunction with the Ecological Society of America, the
Society for Conservation Biology, Smithsonian Institution/Man and the
Biosphere, and the American Society of Naturalists at the Rhode
Island Convention Center, Providence, Rhode Island, 11-15 August
1996. The meeting will include symposia, contributed poster and paper
sessions, workshops, field trips, social events, and business
meetings. Information: ATB Program Chair, Dr. Colin Orians,
Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155. Tel: 617-
627-3543; FAX: 617-627-3805; Email:
OR ESA Program Chair, Dr. Jill Baron, National Biological Service,
Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort
Collins CO 80523; Email:
Registration information and materials are available on the ESA
In remembrance and recognition of the contributions of a singular
scientist, colleague, mentor, and friend, ATB has established the
Alwyn Gentry Award for Best Student Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the ATB. Students who would like their posters and oral
presentations considered for an award should send their abstract to
Julie S. Denslow, Executive Director, ATB, Department of Plant
Biology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA
Students should be the first author on the paper and should be
reporting substantially their own work.
Biodiversity Bulletin. The U.S. based Biodiversity Action
Network (BIONET), the International Union for the Conservation of
Nature (IUCN), and the World Resources Institute (WRI) will jointly
produce a quarterly newsletter entitled Biodiversity Bulletin. The
newsletter will act as a global communications tool to inform key
constituencies and actively promote the conservation and sustainable
use of biodiversity. The inaugural issue will be produced in English,
Spanish and French and will be posted on the Internet. Information:
Biodiversity Action Network, Tel: (202) 547-8902. FAX: (202)
Intelligence Satellite Photos Released. More than 300,000
satellite photographs collected by the U.S. intelligence community
between 1960 and 1972 are now available from the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS). This collection adds more than a decade of records to
the Landsat collection that has been available for civilian sue since
1972. These images, which include much of the world, allow comparison
with recent images to reveal changes in natural systems and land
cover. The World Wide Web catalog for USGS images is:
Technical information: USGS, EROS Data Center, Customer Services,
Sioux Falls, SD 57198. Tel: (605) 594-6151. FAX: (605) 594-6589.
Field Station Profile: Yasuni Scientific Research Station. The
Ecuadorian Amazon possesses an enormous and unique biological wealth
of prominent interest to the world's scientific community. This
tropical rainforest has the highest known biodiversity in the world.
Nevertheless, this region remains one of the least known and much of
it is yet to be discovered. Of the many new species of birds, plants
and other animals, a great number are endemic to the region. The
interactions among organisms and the use indigenous people make of
plants and animals for medicine, food, and construction are just
beginning to be understood by the outside world. The cultural
richness of the Huaorani and Quichua people living in the area is an
The Yasuni Scientific Research Station was created on August 25, 1995
by the Ecuadorian government through the Institute of Forestry,
Natural Areas and Wildlife (INEFAN), and its administration assigned
to the Department of Biological Sciences of the Pontifical Catholic
University of Ecuador. The opportunities offered by the station are
unique; the station has a privileged location in the heart of the
Ecuadorian rainforest, Yasuni National Park. The park was declared a
Reserve of the Biosphere by UNESCO in 1989.
The Yasuni Scientific Research Station is located in the Ecuadorian
Amazonia, southeast of Coca, province of Napo, on the south shore of
the Tiputini river and close to the confluence with the Tivacuno
river. Information: Alberto Padilla, Director, Department of
Biological Sciences, Pontifica Universidad CatÛlica del
Ecuador. FAX: 593-2-567-117. Email:
Tropical Biology and Conservation on the World Wide Web
Biodiversity Action Network:
Center for International Environmental Law:
Convention on Biological Diversity:
Convention on Climate Change:
Costa Rica: http ://www.cr/ INBio:
Inter American Development Bank:
International Institute for Sustainable Development:
Latin American Database:
Organization of American States:
ANNOUNCEMENTS Meetings and Events Items marked * are new this
8th International Coral Reef Symposium. Panama City, Panama,
24-29 June. Information: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,
STRI Unit 0948, APO AA 34002-0948, USA. Email:
*47th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Biological
Sciences: Temperate Rainforests. Seattle, Washington, 4-8 August.
Information: AIBS Headquarters, 1444 Eye Street, Suite 200,
Washington, DC 20005. Tel: (202) 628-1500. FAX: (202) 628-1509.
Ecology and Problem Solving. Providence, Rhode Island, USA,
11-15 August. Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America.
Information: Dr. Jill Baron, Program Chair, Natural Resource Ecology
Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523. Tel:
303-491-1968; Email: email@example.com.
*Sixth International Bee Research Association Conference on
Tropical Bees: Management and Diversity. 12-17 August, Heredia,
Costa Rica. Information: Richard Jones, Director, IBRA,
World Heritage Tropical Forests: Science for Better Conservation
Management. Cairns, North Queensland, Australia, 2-7 September.
Information: Conference Secretariat: Tel: (07) 369 0477, FAX: (07)
5th Intecol International Wetlands Conference. Perth, Australia,
22-28 September. Information: Dr. Jenny Davis, School of Biological
and Environmental Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western
Australia 6150. Tel: 61 9 360 2939; Email:
*Big-Leaf Mahogany: Ecology and Management. San Juan, Puerto
Rico, 22-24 October. Information: Julio C. Figueroa Colon,
International Institute of Tropical Forestry, PO Box 25000, San Juan,
Puerto Rico 00928-5000. Tel: (809) 766-5335. FAX: (809) 766-6302.
III Latin American Congress of Ecology. MÈrida,
Venezuela, 22-28 October. Information: Dr. Jaime E. PÈfaur,
Secretario Ejecutivo, III Congreso Latinoamericano de
EcologÌa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes,
MÈrida, Venezuela 5101.
*Tree Improvement For Sustainable Tropical Forestry.
Catoundra, Queenstand, Australia, 27 October-November.
Information: Conference Secretariat, 1996 QFRI -IUFRO Conference,
Queensland Forest Research Institute, M.S. 483, Gympie, QLD 4570,
Australia. Tel: 61 74 822244. FAX: 61 74 828755. Email:
Pan-African Ornithological Congress. Accra, Ghana, 1-8
December. Dr. Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Ghana Wildlife Society, PO Box
13252, Accra, Ghana.
Biodiversity, Conservation and Management Symposium. Beni
Biosphere Reserve, La Paz, Bolivia, 3-6 December. Information:
Francisco Dallmeier, Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program, 1100
Jefferson Drive, SW Suite 3123, Washington DC 20560, USA. Tel: (202)
357-4793 FAX: (202) 786-2557. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Or Carmen
Miranda, Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, Av. 16 de Julio
1732, Casilla 5829, La Paz, Bolivia. Tel or FAX: (581-2) 350612.
Natural Science Collections: A Resource for the Future.
Durham, England. 19-21 December. 2nd International Symposium and Work
Congress on the Preservation of Natural History Collections.
Information: Chris Collins, Natural Science Congress 96, Geological
Conservation Unit, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Downing St., Cambridge
CB2 3EQ, UK
The School for Field Studies: Resident faculty positions. SFS
seeks educators experienced in field based education to work in
various locations worldwide; all positions are residential.
Qualifications include PhD or Masters with 4 years of applied
relevant experience, 2 years teaching at the college level,
experience in the region (either Australia or Costa Rica), and an
ability to live in a remote field setting.
Field Director positions. SFS seeks an unique blend of
academic knowledge, entrepreneurial spirit and proven management
skills to lead a faculty team and up to 32 college students in a
field based applied program. The Field Director has overall academic
and administrative responsibility for the program. Locations include
Australia and Costa Rica. Requirements: PhD. or Masters degree with 7
years of applied experience; management experience with staff, the
creation of educational programs and budgets; experience teaching at
the college level; familiarity with the region; and the ability to
lead and motivate staff in a remote setting. To apply: send detailed
letter and cv to The School for Field Studies, Box T, 16 Broadway,
Beverly, MA, 01915, USA.
Call for Proposals. The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments
Project (BDFFP) of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas do Amazonia
(INPA) and the Smithsonian Institution are issuing a call for
research proposals. Based at 11 forest fragments near Manaus, Brazil,
the BDFF program began in 1979 with a focus on the effects of
fragmentation on recently continuous tropical rainforest habitat.
Proposals should address questions relating to the biology of
extinction, forest edge effects, the processes of forest
regeneration, fragmentation effects on the genetic structure of
tropical species, taxonomic studies of poorly- known or highly
diverse taxa, or basic tropical ecology which can serve as the basis
for future investigations of fragmentation effects. Information: Dr.
Claude Gascon, Scientific Coordinator, PDBFF, INPA Ecologia, C.P.
478, 6901 1-970 Manaus AM, Brasil. Tel: 55 92 6421 148. FAX: 55 92
Earthwatch. The Center for Field Research invites proposals
for 1997 field grants awarded by its affiliate Earthwatch, an
international, non-profit organization dedicated to sponsoring
research and promoting public education in the sciences and
humanities. Information about Earthwatch field grants is available on
the Center's World Wide Web site
The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. The
Foundation funds various programs in support of research in all
branches of anthropology, including cultural/social anthropology,
ethnology, biological/physical anthropology, archeology, and
anthropological linguistics, and in closely related disciplines
concerned with human origins. Funding opportunities include regular
and predoctoral grants, postdoctoral fellowships, developing
countries training fellowships, international collaborative research
grants, and funding for conferences and historical archive
preparation. Information: Wenner-Gren Foundation, 220 Fifth Avenue,
16th Floor, New York, NY 10001. Tel: (212) 683-5000.
Tropical Research Awards. The Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute and the Organization for Tropical Studies announce five
research awards. Applications are invited from established
investigators in all fields of ecological and evolutionary biology to
conduct comparative research between STRI and OTS field sites in
Panama and Costa Rica. Awards include summer salary for up to three
years and appropriate travel funds. Successful applicants are
expected to apply other resources to support research. Open to all
nationalities. Applications accepted until. Address inquiries to
Education Office, Smithsonian, Apdo 2072, Balboa, Ancon, Panama or
Unit 0948, APO AA, 34002-0948, USA (Email:
Mellon Research Exploration Awards in Tropical Biology. The
Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) and the Smithsonian Tropical
Research Institute (STRI) invite proposals for comparative research
at their research stations in Costa Rica and Panama. Awards (to
$2000) supported by the Andrew Mellon Foundation will allow
researchers with previous or ongoing projects at either OTS' La Selva
field station or STRI's Barro Colorado Island (and nearby sites) to
develop comparative studies at both sites. Applications reviewed
every six months beginning 31 October 1995. Interested researchers
should talk to Bruce Young or contact Mellon Comparative Research
Grants, La Selva Biological Station, Interlink 341, PO Box 02-5635,
Miami, FL, 33152; Fax: (506) 710-1414; Email:
Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology, edited by S. S. Mulkey, R.
L. Chazdon, and A.P. Smith, Chapman and Hall, NY. 1996. $89.95. The
book consists of 21 chapters covering many aspects of plant
ecophysiology. It is organized into 4 sections: Resource acquisition,
Ecophysiological aspects of species interactions, Ecophysiological
patterns across tropical forest communities, and Ecophysiology of
forest regeneration and succession. More info is available on the
Chapman and Hall web page
Chazdon, University of Connecticut.
A Field Guide to the Familes and Genera of Woody Plants of
Northwest South America (Columbia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary
Notes on Herbaceous Taxa. Alwyn H. Gentry, 1996. University of
Chicago Press. Information: Dave Aftandilian, Tel: (312) 702 -0279,
FAX (312) 702-9756. Email: da@press. uchicago.edu.
Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Southeast Asian
Rainforests. R.B. Primack and T.E. Lovejoy, Editors, 1995. Yale
University Press, P.0. Box 209040, New Haven, CT 06520- 9040.
Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. D. F. Stotz, J.W.
Fitzpatrick, T.A. Parker III, and D.K. Moskovits, 1996. University of
Chicago Press. Information: Dave Aftandilian, Tel (312) 702- 0279,
FAX (312) 702 -9756. Email: email@example.com.
South-South Perspectives is a newsletter published by the
South- South Cooperation Program on environmentally sound
socio-economic development in the humid tropics. It aims to maintain
links between the participants of the program and to provide
information related to research on Biosphere Reserves. The newsletter
is published in English, French, Spanish and Chinese. Information:
Administrative Editor, UNESCO, Division of Ecological Sciences,
Programme de Cooperation Sud-Sud, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75 700 Paris,
France. Tel: 33 1 45684146. FAX: 33 1 40659897. Email:
Juncaceae. Flora Neotropica volume 68. by Henrik Balslev. This
taxonomic monograph includes history, taxonomic keys and
descriptions, morphology and anatomy, karyology, palynology, and
chemotaxonomy. Balslev treats 55 species within six genera. Also
included are: distribution, floral biology, and indices of vernacular
and scientific names. ISBN 0-89327-403-8. $29.50. New York Botanical
Garden, Scientific Publications Department, Bronx, NY 10458-5126.
Tel: (718) 817-8721. FAX: (718) 817-8842. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.